Tim Boaz Bruun Skuldbøl is the director of the “University of Copenhagen Archaeological Project on the Rania Plain, Iraqi Kurdistan” in the Department of Cross-Cultural and Regional Studies at the University of Copenhagen. His research focuses on the management of garbage in urban societies and on the development of urbanism in marginal regions of Ancient Mesopotamia. email:

Carlo Colantoni was Assistant Professor in Near Eastern Archaeology in the Department of Archaeology at Bitlis Eren University, Turkey. His research includes analyses of settlement patterns and landscape surveys of Ancient Mesopotamia; architecture and the built environment; and human behavioural responses to environment and societal collapse in complex ancient societies. Presently, he is undertaking research in south-western Turkey and northern Iraq. Colantoni is currently the Survey Leader for the University of Copenhagen’s archaeological investigations in Iraqi Kurdistan. email: